Monday, August 25, 2008

Morale In Human Resource Management


1). Define morale?

Ans. Morale is a state of mind or willingness to work which in turn affects individuals and organizational objectives. According to Flippo “morale is a mental condition or attitudes of individuals and groups which determine their willingness to co-operate. Good morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformance with regulation and orders, and a willingness, to cooperate with others in the accomplishment of an organization’s objectives. Poor morale is evidenced by surliness, insubordination, a feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job, company and associates. ”

2). What are the characteristics of morale?

Ans. The characteristics of morale are: -

* Morale is a state of mind.

* Morale is a relative term it may be high or low.

* Morale is intangible.

* It is the aggregate of attitudes, feelings, emotions, sentiments etc.

* Morale influences human behavior and performance.

3). What is the importance of morale?

Ans. Morale is a state of mind or willingness to work which in turn affects individual and organizational objectives. The importance of morale are: -

* Higher performance.
* Better quality of work.
* Low absenteeism.
* Good discipline.
* Fewer industrial accidents.
* Stability and growth of the organization.

4). What are the factors influencing morale?

Ans. The main factors influencing morale are as follows: -

* Nature of work: - Meaningful and satisfying job helps to improve employee morale. Morale tends to be low when the job provides no challenge and satisfaction and job standards are considered very high.
* Working condition: - Physical work environment, job security, wages and other allied factors exercise a significant influence on employee morale.

* Supervision: - Competent, dependable and fair-minded leadership can build and maintain high morale.

* Management policies: - The policies and attitudes of management concerning, promotion, transfer etc. affect morale.

* Personal factors: - The age, education, occupation level and family life of an employee, determine his morale.

5). What are the measures for building high morale?

Ans. Morale building is a difficult exercise as it involves removing misconception, changing attitudes and dealing with emotions. The following measures may be helpful in improving employee morale: -

* Proper working condition.

* Job security.

* Sound compensation system.

* Sound promotion policy.

* Job enrichment.

* Sound procedure of employee grievances.

* Worker’s participation in management.

6). What are the methods of measuring morale?

Ans. Morale is an intangible and subjective concept. The following methods are used to measure morale: -

* Observation
* Attitude or morale survey

1. Interview method
2. Questionnaire method

* Company records and reports.